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Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side


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#1 daveraver

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 01:42

I want to share my experience creating a vpn server on openpli 4.0.

 

First of all, install openvpn

opkg install openvpn

Next, we will create files ca.crt, server.crt, server.key, same files for clients, client.crt, client.key, following this link (I've been guided to the link by littlesat, thanks):

https://community.openvpn.net/openvpn/wiki/Easy_Windows_Guide

I saw that doing openvpn --help on box command line, all files have to be .pem extension. Let's to convert the files:

 

Follow this guide:

https://blog.didiers...ssl-on-windows/

up to finish this three last steps:

set RANDFILE=c:\demo\.rnd
set OPENSSL_CONF=C:\OpenSSL-Win32\bin\openssl.cfg
c:\OpenSSL-Win32\bin\openssl.exe

Now, in this mode, you can convert .crt and .key files to .pem for server files, to put in stb at /etc/openvpn/

$ openssl> x509 -in filename.crt -inform DER -out filename.crt.pem -outform PEM
$ openssl> rsa -in filename.key -out filename.key.pem -outform PEM

The ca.cert file, he have to open the certificate in windows OS and select details tab> copy file>convert to binary DER x509 and select destination folder to save.

 

Then we convert the ca.cer file to .pem file:

OpenSSL>x509 -inform DER -in ca.cer -outform PEM -out ca.pem

All these conversions to .pem extension is based on openvpn --help binnary information of our instalation of openvpn in our STB, maybe it's not necessary.

 

dh2048.pem have to locate at openvpn config directory too, /etc/openvpn

 

I add two extra .pem files to the directory 01.pem and 02.pem, they have been generated on the files creation, they contains key info, I dont know if there is duplicity of information.

 

Lets to put the server config file parameters /etc/openvpn/server.conf

local 192.168.xxx.xxx (local network IP)
server 10.8.0.0 255.255.255.0 (for example)
tls-server
proto udp
port 443 (sample port)
dev tun
ca ca.pem
dh dh2048.pem
cert server.crt.pem
key server.key.pem
extra-certs 01.pem
extra-certs 02.pem
ifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt
comp-lzo
float
ping-timer-rem
persist-key
persist-tun
status openvpn-status.log
log openvpn.log
verb 3
keepalive 10 120

Client profile *.ovpn (tested on android openvpn app).

client
dev tun
proto udp
remote 'hostname(NOIP) or Public IP' 443 (sample port)
resolv-retry infinite
nobind
persist-key
persist-tun
mute-replay-warnings
ca /file_path/ca.crt
cert /file_path/client.crt
key /file_path/client.key
ns-cert-type server
cipher bf-cbc
comp-lzo
verb 3
mute 20

The port we are going to use to vnp connection have to be opened, of course, and you can forward to other external different port as you know.

 

Happy VPN connection.



Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #2 Erik Slagter

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 09:56

There you go! I didn't check every byte of the config, but from a glance it looks correct. Now let's see how many people will find this tutorial. I hope many, of course.


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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #3 jort38

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 10:03

I found it.

Vu+ Ultimo 4K (4 TB HD, DVBS FSB, DVBC FBC & OpenPli 8),

Xtrend ET10000 (1 TB HD, 3 DVBC, 1 DVBS works via ethernet & OpenPli 8),

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Xtrend ET10000 (1,5 TB HD works via ethernet & OpenPli 8) and

Xtrend ET8000 (1 TB HD, 1 DVBT2 & works via ethernet & OpenPli 8)


Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #4 athoik

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 10:37

Don't forget to create a wiki page where users can update there: https://wiki.openpli.org/OpenVPN-Setup
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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #5 daveraver

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 11:55

Don't forget to create a wiki page where users can update there: https://wiki.openpli.org/OpenVPN-Setup

Ok, thank you, I've finsihed the wiki page right now, if somebody want to edit it to do better design...cheers!



Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #6 daveraver

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 16:57

I've edited again the wiki, now I think it's right, it had lost some info. I hope wiki will be updated with new openvpn releases. thank you.

Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #7 littlesat

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 18:36

Thanks.... finally a guide is started...

 

Still I think the server.conf showed here is a bit extra complicated.... Why the extra certs.....

 

And with 10.8 you take a small risk.... check the list spacerat showed and pick a bit more strategic IP range for the 'tunnel'   ;)

 

e.g. 192.168.33..... or so....


Edited by littlesat, 14 January 2017 - 23:38.

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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #8 daveraver

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 19:38

I dont know much about networks. My router gateway has been changed and it is not 192.168.1.1, the local ip of vpn I think is not important, 10.8.0.0 or 10.5.0.0...dont care the vpn tun ip, you have to acces by public ip, opened port to local ip...If you dont tell more arguments I dont understand the risks of put an ip or other...we sign the acces with 2048bit rsa key, 1024bit is more than enough, so I am sorry, I dont 'capito', I use non usual local ip, what ip I would have to use in tun ip??? anyway, my box is not a focus to investigate anything, but use ip not usual is on the hand who configures the vpn conection, not in my ones.
In reference of extra certs files 01.pem 02.pem i dont know if they are productive, but I had it, and I put it, I dont know what utility have them. Do you know anything about this. we can be critic to improve, not to disturb. so tell us your opinion to make a right configuration, please. thank you.

Edited by daveraver, 14 January 2017 - 19:43.


Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #9 SpaceRat

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 23:26

Thanks.... finally a guide is started...

Still I think the server.conf showed here is a bit extra complicated.... Why the extra certs.....

And with 10.8 you take a small risk.... check the list spacerat showed and pick a bit more strategic IP range for the 'tunnel' ;)

e.g. 192.168.1.33 or so....

192.168.1.x is bad too.

Good choices:
172.16.x.y to 172.31.x.y
192.168.3.x to 192.168.9.x
192.168.11.x to 192.168.99.x
192.168.101.x to 192.168.177.x
192.168.181.x to 192.168.255.x

Neither the tunnel nor the local network should be one of the bad ones.

Why?
Because a lot of "alien" networks (WiFi hotspots, cellular networks, friend's networks) will be already.

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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #10 WanWizard

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 23:33

A very good choice is 198.18.0.0/15.

 

It is not routed on the internet, but hardly anyone ever uses it.

 

172.16.0.0/12 is my preferred range, so rather not. ;)


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Many answers to your question can be found in our new and improved wiki.


Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #11 littlesat

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 23:36

And to complete the thing... here an example for an ovpn file that can be used for openvpn on an iOs device... The xxx should be of course be replaced by the specific key stuff,... And note using port 443 is smart...

client
dev tun
proto tcp
remote XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX 443
resolv-retry infinite
nobind
persist-key
persist-tun
ns-cert-type server
comp-lzo
<ca>
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
</ca>
<cert>
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
</cert>
<key>
-----BEGIN ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
-----END ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----
</key>

Edited by littlesat, 14 January 2017 - 23:36.

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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #12 littlesat

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 23:39

192.168.1.x is bad too.

 

-> typo... I meant 192.168.33.xxxx


Edited by littlesat, 14 January 2017 - 23:39.

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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #13 WanWizard

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Posted 14 January 2017 - 23:40

I will try to consolidate this information in the next few days, and update/tidy the wiki entry...


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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #14 SpaceRat

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Posted 15 January 2017 - 10:43

A very good choice is 198.18.0.0/15.
It is not routed on the internet, but hardly anyone ever uses it.

Uhm, several tools use it to generate dead routes.
The "adblock" extension on OpenWrt/LEDE makes DNSMasq resolve "bad hosts" to some IP in that range and then use DNAT for http/https to let the own busybox httpd answer requests to these bad hosts with 1px graphics.
And they have already changed the IP, because some other tool uses that address range too ...

 

172.16.0.0/12 is my preferred range, so rather not. ;)

Haha ... well ...
IPv4 is a major pain in the ass.
Even if one follows my hints about the network address ranges, there still will we other networks using the same or colliding address ranges.
It's just much less likely.

The bad thing is: You won't notice until it is too late.
Using 192.168.178.x for the home LAN will work perfectly nice ... until you really want to establish a VPN connection while being in a network of a Fritz!Box with default configuration.
And if you ever travel to Germany, that will be >50% of all home networks or other networks using plastic routers :)

Using 192.168.1.x at home would also work nicely, as long as you are trying to establish the VPN from default Fritz!Box networks or the Telefonica/o2 cellular network in Germany (Using 10/8) ... but will fail as soon as you arrive at a hotel which uses 192.168.1.x for its WiFi too ...

The Fritz!Box itself forces you to change that address range as soon as you configure its own VPN feature.
It's a shame that a lot of wide open OWIFs I found obviously are located inside Fritz!Box networks (As hardly any other router brand uses 192.168.178.x as default and lots of boxes I found had an address in that range).
Those users have an easy to use IPSec solution built into their routers and still open the OWIF directly to the net, without even setting a password :(
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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #15 SpaceRat

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Posted 15 January 2017 - 10:48

And to complete the thing... here an example for an ovpn file that can be used for openvpn on an iOs device... The xxx should be of course be replaced by the specific key stuff,... And note using port 443 is smart...

...
<ca>
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
</ca>
<cert>
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
</cert>
<key>
-----BEGIN ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
-----END ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----
</key>

The same works for server configs too!

Just add the DH params like this
<dh>
-----BEGIN DH PARAMETERS-----
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
-----END DH PARAMETERS-----
</dh>
I really like it that way, because that way you only got a single config file for the server rather than 5 for which the paths may break.
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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #16 littlesat

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Posted 15 January 2017 - 10:54

At least we slowly get a how to configure openvpn (on your box)... Probably owif could be configured by default when a request does not come from the local network or the ip-address as configured in server.conf from openvpn that owif does not respond.... And when you u do this you get a big warning splash screen...

Edited by littlesat, 15 January 2017 - 10:55.

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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #17 Erik Slagter

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Posted 15 January 2017 - 12:08

"Class E" range, unless you have any windows stuff in your home, which they appear to refuse.


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Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #18 SpaceRat

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Posted 15 January 2017 - 12:19

Probably owif could be configured by default when a request does not come from the local network or the ip-address as configured in server.conf from openvpn that owif does not respond.... And when you u do this you get a big warning splash screen...

It (almost) does this already:
If you do not configure "auth" for OWIF, it will accept local connections only and refuse all others with reason 403.6 (IP address range not allowed).

If I'm not entirely wrong, (tun-)connections from OpenVPN road warriors will usually be MASQUERADEd to originate from the box OpenVPN is running on = local network too.
tap-connections are bridged, the client gets an IP from the local network address space too ...

Two quirks:
Even a lame auth like root:root will re-enable access from any IP and thus port-forwarded access again ... but we are not here to force people into their own luck.
As long as Dream doesn't implement similar counter-measures into their Dream WebControl, there are more thankful victims out there ("Not in my back yard" principle) and the basic idea was to just put a show stopper to port-forwarded access to make people start thinking why we could want them to do that.
So far the responses from forums prove me right, people come and ask how to re-enable access and we can suggest a VPN solution instead.
If they then use a VPN or just set a lame pass is beyond our control and what we should dictate (at the moment).

MASQUERADING requires another kernel module which might not be available on all boxes.
The advantage of the oe-a images is that we mirrored the vendor's bsps and thus can modify kernel configs as we deem fit, e.g. to implement iptables/ip6tables, masquerading, ...
OpenPLi uses and serves to the users whatever the box vendor deemed fit.

My To-Do list is clear:
1. Finish simple-rsa
2. Implement whatever is required to make OpenVPN VPNs work smoothly on the box for real VPNs with the emphasis on P as in Private (in contrast to "privacy" providers that are just (ab)using the term VPN).
3. Implement whatever it takes to make it possible to use IPSec on the box to make the boxes road warriors, starting with IKEv1 PSK setups as used by the Fritz!Box.
4. ...

simple-rsa is currently written as a Bash script. It focusses on creating keys/certs and configs in one way that suits most users. Those who believe or truely can do better configs will most likely not use it anyways.
The idea behind simple-rsa is not to make admins unemployed but to give Joe Average the chance to set up a secure and good working VPN.
1st box: Vu+ Ultimo 4k 4xDVB-S2 FBC / 2xDVB-C / 1.8 TB HDD / OpenATV 6.2
2nd box: Gigablue Quad 4k 2xDVB-S2 FBC / 2xDVB-C / 1.8 TB HDD / OpenATV 6.2
testing boxes: Vu+ Duo² + AX Quadbox HD2400 + 2x Vu+ Solo² + Octagon SF4008
Sats & Pay-TV: Astra 19.2°E + Hotbird 13°E with Redlight / SCT HD / SES Astra HD- / Sky V14 / 4th empire propaganda TV
Card-Server: Raspberry Pi + IPv6-capable oscam
Router: Linksys WRT1900ACS w/ LEDE + Fritz!Box 7390

Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #19 SpaceRat

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Posted 15 January 2017 - 12:32

Preview of the guided setup of an OpenVPN server:

-= Simple RSA =-

OPENVPN MENU

1) Generate DH params (Only needed once)
2) Setup a server on THIS machine
3) -
4) -
5) Return to main menu
#? 2

Enter a port for the OpenVPN server to listen on.

Hint for DS-lite/CGN users:
        If you are going to use a port proxy like feste-ip.net or myonlineportal.net,
        you should create the port proxy FIRST, trying to get a 1:1 mapping and use the
        resulting port here!

OpenVPN server port: 443

OpenVPN server port is 443
Is this correct? [Y/n]

Use of routed networking (tun) or bridged networking (tap).

If unsure choose TUN

1) tun
2) tap
#? 1

Networking will use tun
Is this correct? [Y/n]

Network protocol to use for OpenVPN.

Hint for DS-lite/CGN users:
        If you are going to use a port proxy like feste-ip.net or myonlineportal.net,
        you MUST use TCP, as UDP can not be proxied!

If unsure choose TCP

1) tcp
2) udp
#? 1

Network protocol will be tcp6
Is this correct? [Y/n]

1st box: Vu+ Ultimo 4k 4xDVB-S2 FBC / 2xDVB-C / 1.8 TB HDD / OpenATV 6.2
2nd box: Gigablue Quad 4k 2xDVB-S2 FBC / 2xDVB-C / 1.8 TB HDD / OpenATV 6.2
testing boxes: Vu+ Duo² + AX Quadbox HD2400 + 2x Vu+ Solo² + Octagon SF4008
Sats & Pay-TV: Astra 19.2°E + Hotbird 13°E with Redlight / SCT HD / SES Astra HD- / Sky V14 / 4th empire propaganda TV
Card-Server: Raspberry Pi + IPv6-capable oscam
Router: Linksys WRT1900ACS w/ LEDE + Fritz!Box 7390

Re: Build a Server VPN with openvpn - create certificate files - configure client side #20 Pippin

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Posted 15 January 2017 - 12:57

Must have for OpenVPN 2.3.x:

--tls-auth (ta.key 0 server side and ta.key 1 on client side (can also be inline)

--cipher AES-128-CBC as a minimum, as it is now it`s vulnerable to SWEET32 attack

 

Suggestions:

1. remove --ns-cert-type server, instead use 3.

2. add --remote-cert-tls server for server side and --remote-cert-tls client for client side.

3. remove --tls-server since the directive --server already includes it.

4. add --topology subnet server side (pushed to clients automatically)

 

Good practice: Do not generate certificates on the box or any embedded system for that matter.

 

*****

Update OpenVPN to current version 2.4 so we can use tls-crypt and NCP and AES-GCM which will reduce overhead on crypto.

Someone made a start here:

https://github.com/o...core/issues/142


Today's scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments, and they wander off through equation after equation, and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality. Nikola Tesla


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